NHR 2018 Jan-Mar: Utilisation of Ultrasonography in a Homoeopathic Hospital

Year : 2018  |  Volume : XIV  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 7-9

Utilisation of Ultrasonography in a Homoeopathic Hospital

Dr. Sumana Sengupta; MD (Hom)*1, Prof. (Dr.) Debasis Basu; MBBS, PhD2

*1Lecturer, Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, D N De Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital, West Bengal; Former Postgraduate Trainee, Dept. of Practice of Medicine, National Institute of Homoeopathy, West Bengal; E-mail: sumanaseng@gmail.com

 2Professor and Head, Dept. of Practice of Medicine, National Institute of Homoeopathy, West Bengal

Abstract

Background: Inappropriate use of resources may lead to serious health and economic consequences. This study was undertaken to evaluate ultrasonography (USG) utilization services in a homoeopathy teaching institution in India.

Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective record analysis was conducted on the data obtained from radiology department of National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkata over a period of one month related to the different types of USG advised and the varieties and frequencies of abnormalities detected.

Results: Out of 72 patients undergoing USG (M: 17, F: 55), 42 (58.3%) were abnormal (M: 14/17, F: 28/55). Six types of USG were advised – whole abdomen, lower abdomen, upper abdomen, kidney-ureter-bladder-prostate (KUBP), breast, and thyroid. The proportion of abnormal reports varied for the six types. The reports provided more details of the different abnormal findings, often in combination.

Conclusion: The data indicated considerable use of and high rate of detection of abnormalities suggesting that instead of routine use, USG was being utilized in homoeopathic hospital with ample rationality. USG helps to document diagnosis and can provide undisputable objective evidence of treatment effect of homoeopathy.

 

Keywords

Ultrasonography, Radiology, Imaging, Homoeopathy

 

Introduction

The costs of inappropriate use of resources in healthcare settings are high in terms of both wasting medical resources and inducing adverse clinical consequences [1]. The issue is multi-faceted and important, especially for homoeopathy, when the system is facing plausibility challenges [2] and the available resources are already scarce [3]. One of the reasons for which homoeopathy has not received adequate scientific acceptance is lack of sensitization and orientation towards evidence-based medicine and research [4, 5]. One of the method by which this challenge can be largely overcome is by the use of proper investigation techniques. There has been increasing use of imaging techniques like skiagram and ultrasonography for documentation of pathological findings in homoeopathic institutions. An attempt was made to analyse data on the use of Ultrasonography (USG) to find out the different types of USG advised and what are the varieties and frequencies of abnormalities detected in such USG.

 

Methods

A cross-sectional, retrospective, record analysis was conducted on the data obtained from the radiology department of National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkata over a period of one month. Data was collected, compiled and analysed from the records of the patients sent for USG by the attending homoeopathic doctors, from either outpatient or inpatient departments, along with the diagnosis and opinion given by the expert sonologist. Statistical analysis was descriptive in terms of absolute numbers, percentages, and 95 percent confidence intervals.

 

Results

A total of 72 patients (male 17, female 55) underwent USG investigations. Of them, 42 (58.3%) were abnormal (M: 14/17, F: 28/55). There were six types of USG done – whole abdomen, upper abdomen, lower abdomen, KUBP, breasts, and thyroid gland. (Tables 1 and 2)

The reports provided more details of the different abnormal findings which in some patients occurred in combination. The different types of abnormalities detected either singly or in combination were hepatomegaly, spleenomegaly, hepato-spleenomegaly, hypoplastic left kidney, right renal cyst, calculus cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, fatty liver, space occupying lesion in right lobe of liver, adenomyosis uterus, and prostatomegaly.

Table 1: Different types of USG done

Types of USG

Total

Abnormal;

n (%)

95% CI

Whole abdomen

34

19 (55.9)

38.1, 72.4

Lower abdomen

17

12 (70.6)

44.1, 88.6

Upper abdomen

10

03 (30.0)

8.1, 64.6

KUBP

06

04 (66.7)

24.1, 94.0

Breast

03

02 (66.7)

12.5, 98.2

Thyroid

02

02 (100)

19.8, 100

Total

72

42 (58.3)

46.1, 69.6

Discussion

The collected data showed that a significant number of patients in the homoeopathic hospital are sent for USG (as many as 72 in one calendar month) and  the rate of detection of abnormalities is quite high (58.3%). Most frequently advised USG was that of whole abdomen, out of which 55.9% were abnormal. Rate of abnormal USG of upper abdomen, lower abdomen, KUBP, breasts, and thyroid were 30.0%, 70.6%, 66.7%, 66.7%, 100% respectively. The percentages of detection of abnormalities were quite high and indicated good diagnostic skills of the homoeopathic physicians.

Without the evidence provided by USG it could have been difficult to establish that the patients were really suffering from the diseases clinically diagnosed by the doctor. Such USG also helps to assess the prognosis of a case. USG of different regions of the body provide necessary evidence to help the practice of clinical medicine and can be used to provide evidence of pathological and symptom changes as well. So even if the report of the USG may have no impact on the selection of the homoeopathic medicines, repeated USG can offer prognostic evaluations. Currently, this aspect of utility of USG is still not being used to full extent.

Table 2: Gender variations of different types of USG advised

USG advised

Total

Male

Female

Total

Normal

Abnormal

Total

Normal

Abnormal

Whole abdomen

34

7

1

6

27

14

13

Lower abdomen

17

2

0

2

15

5

10

Upper abdomen

10

3

1

2

7

6

1

KUBP

06

5

1

4

1

1

0

Breasts

03

0

0

0

3

1

2

Thyroid

02

0

0

0

2

0

2

Total

72

17

3

14

55

27

28

 

Conclusion

Although the study was over a short period, the data indicated considerable use of USG in the homoeopathic hospital. The high rate of abnormalities indicated that instead of routine use, USG was being advised with adequate rationality. This can provide undisputable objective evidence of treatment effects of homoeopathy. The encouraging side of current homoeopathic practice highlighted was that use of USG is being done for documentation of diagnosis; but the other side highlighted was that USG was still not being used for documenting changes in the pathology evident during the initial diagnosis.

 

References

  1. Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad. Factors influencing healthcare service quality. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2014;3(2):77-89.
  2. Rutten L, Mathie RT, Fisher P, Goossens M, van Wassenhoven M. Plausibility and evidence: the case of homeopathy. Med Health Care Philos. 2013;16(3):525-532.
  3. Zawiła-Niedźwiecki J, Olender A not-so-gentle refutation of the defence of homeopathy. J Bioeth Inq. 2016;13:21-25.
  4. Koley M, Saha S, Arya JS, Choubey G, et al. Knowledge and attitude towards homeopathic research: the perspective of new graduates and postgraduate trainees – an Indian scenario. Focus Altern Complement Ther. 2014;19(3):119-125.
  5. Saha S, Koley M, Mondal R, Kundu M, et al. Understanding of biostatistics among the homeopathic fresh graduates and post-graduate trainees in West Bengal, India. Int J High Dilution Res. 2014;13(48):172-181.

Cite this article as: Sengupta S, Basu D. Utilisation of Ultrasonography in a Homoeopathic Hospital. National Homoeo Recorder 2018;XIV(1):7-9

Note: The paper was presented in the 18thAll India Homoeopathic Conference in Kolkata in December 2012.

This paper was reviewed and edited by: (1) Dr. Subhas Singh, Editor-in-chief, National Homoeo Recorder; and (2) Dr. Subhranil Saha, Independent Researcher, West Bengal

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